Salt Windows PC and Laptop Install

Table of Contents

Project Objective: Purpose

Have Salt provision Windows desktop and laptop machines with site license, accounts, applications, etc. Further use Salt to maintain machines e.g. update cscf-adm and cscf-op passwords annually

Project Scope/Deliverables

Possible outcomes and results of this project are as follows:
  • New machines named and installed with required software
  • Current machines could be added as minions and updated via Salt
  • Salt will maintain various formulas depending on the desired install outcome
  • Inventory a new machine (see the Inventory Salt Integration twiki)
  • Assign the new machine to a user via Salt
  • Document the process

Scope

  • New Windows machines:
    • Prior to OOBE install the salt minion from USB key and provide the machine name as the minion name
    • Connection to Salt master
    • Execute the salt formula (state file)
      • Select the state file or edit an existing state file to meet the required install needs
  • Current Windows machines:
    • Add to the Salt master
    • Maintain account passwords, new application installs, etc.

Constraints

  • Testing required

Assumptions and Risks

  • Risk: Microsoft changes its methods occasionally requiring maintenance of the salt formulas

Project Members

anyone interested

Project Stakeholders

anyone interested

Project Sponsor

CSCF Management maybe

CSCF Salt

https://cs.uwaterloo.ca/twiki/view/CF/SaltStackCSCF

SaltStack Windows

SaltStack has package management for the MS Windows OS, much like the package maintenance for Linux machines. Execution modules, state functions, pillars, grains, etc. operate the same as in Linux.
A repository of available state files for the installation of Windows software is maintained at: https://github.com/saltstack/salt-winrepo-ng

Set repo roots:

root@salt-rsg-2004:/etc/salt/master.d# cat winrepo.conf 
winrepo_dir: /srv/saltstack/win/repo
winrepo_dir_ng: /srv/saltstack/win/repo-ng

Install the repository on the master with command "salt-run winrepo.update_git_repos":

root@master:/srv/salt/win/repo-ng/salt-winrepo-ng# salt-run winrepo.update_git_repos
https://github.com/saltstack/salt-winrepo-ng.git:
/srv/saltstack/win/repo-ng/salt-winrepo-ng
https://github.com/saltstack/salt-winrepo.git:
/srv/saltstack/win/repo/salt-winrepo

Two repositories are installed: salt-winrepo-ng and salt-winrepo. They differ in that the -ng version is newer and includes pillar and grains during compilation.
The salt-winrepo-ng repository is the preferred repository for new packages.

Update each minion with the latest repository with this command. Minions should query the master for this information, but it is easy to update them with this command:

root@master:/srv/saltstack/win# salt -G 'os:windows' pkg.refresh_db

In the command the -G 'os:windows' targets all Windows minions. To target specific minions replace with the minion name. E.g. salt minion-name pkg.refresh_db

Viewing a short list of the directory /srv/salt/win/repo-ng/salt-winrepo-ng:

root@master:/srv/salt/win/repo-ng/salt-winrepo-ng# ls
7zip.sls                       git-extensions.sls                   ms-vcpp-2013-redist_x86.sls    slack.sls
activeperl_x64.sls             git.sls                              ms-vcpp-2015-build-tools.sls   slack-user-msi.sls
activeperl_x86.sls             glarysoft-absolute-uninstaller.sls   ms-vcpp-2015-redist_x64.sls    smartmontools.sls
adobeair.sls                   gnucash.sls                          ms-vcpp-2015-redist_x86.sls    snmptools.sls
adobereader-dc-classic.sls     golang.sls                           ms-vcpp-2017-redist_x64.sls    soapui.sls
adobereader.sls                goodsync.sls                         ms-vcpp-2017-redist_x86.sls    software-informer.sls
adobereader-xi.sls             gow.sls                              mucommander.sls                sourcetree.sls
adobeshockwaveplayer.sls       gpg4win                              mysql-essential.sls            spybot-anti-beacon.sls
advancedlogging.sls            gpg4win-light.sls                    mysql-installer-community.sls  spybot.sls
...

Each one of these packages is a state file that can be included in our master state file. It can be helpful to view the package state file when encountering an install error.
An example is version control. Viewing the nextcloud-client.sls file we see version numbers. It is possible to get behind in version numbers. Executing this state file will cause the minion to reach out to the nextcloud web site to download any one of the versions. If the salt master's repository falls behind it may not find a version of nextcloud-client on the web site. For example the nextcloud-client download web site may be at version 4.0.0 and not include any of the older versions.

root@master:/srv/salt/win/repo-ng/salt-winrepo-ng# cat nextcloud-client.sls
nextcloud-client:
{% for version in ['3.0.3', '3.0.2', '3.0.1', '3.0.0', '2.6.5', '2.6.4', '2.6.3', '2.6.2', '2.6.1', '2.6.0', '2.5.3', '2.5.2', '2.5.1', '2.5.0', '2.3.3.1', '2.3.2.1', '2.3.1.8', '2.2.4.2', '2.2.3.4'] %}
  '{{ version }}':
    full_name: 'Nextcloud'
    installer: 'https://download.nextcloud.com/desktop/releases/Windows/Nextcloud-{{ version }}-setup.exe'
    install_flags: '/S'
    uninstaller: 'https://download.nextcloud.com/desktop/releases/Windows/Nextcloud-{{ version }}-setup.exe'
    uninstall_flags: '/S'
    locale: en_US
    reboot: False
{% endfor %}

The Process

Use Salt to install our standard Windows 10 system on new Windows PC or laptops. The Salt state file will upgrade the license to the University site license, create accounts and install applications.

Required software

Get the salt minion installer: https://docs.saltstack.com/en/latest/topics/installation/windows.html
You can get older versions at https://repo.saltstack.com/windows/
USB flash drive with the Windows Salt minion installer and our batch file:
- Salt-Minion-3002.6-AMD64-Setup.exe
- WindowsMinionInstall.bat
Salt master at version 3002.6 or higher. Ensure the salt master is at the same or a newer version than the minion version.
Salt master Windows repository directories:
- ../win/repo/salt-winrepo
- ../win/repo-ng/salt-winrepo-ng
Salt master state file for installation (as described at heading The State File.

Set root file data:

root@salt-rsg-2004:/etc/salt/master.d# cat winrepo.conf 
winrepo_dir: /srv/saltstack/win/repo
winrepo_dir_ng: /srv/saltstack/win/repo-ng

Step by step

1) Connect the computer to the private network to allow communication with the master Salt machine.

2) Turn on the computer. At the Welcome screen insert the Minion USB flash drive.

3) Open a command prompt window. This is usually done be pressing the function Fn + F10 keys -or- Fn + F10 + Shift keys, simultaneously.

  1. In the command prompt window enter D: to switch to the D: drive which should be the USB flash drive.
  2. Enter this command at the D: drive - WindowsMinionInstall.bat new-machine-name.
  3. Replace the "new-machine-name" with the network/inventory name of the computer e.g. rsg-lt987

RunBatchFile.jpg

4) Continue with the Salt installation on the minion.

WelcomToSaltStack.jpg

5) Accept the terms of agreement.

TermsOfAgreement.jpg

6) Install

Install.jpg

7) Install the vcredist package.

Install-vcredist.jpg

8) Finish and start the minion

Finish.jpg

The salt minion application is now installed on the computer and ready to communicate with the master. Note it will begin logging attempts to access the master, so to avoid creating a very large log file continue to accept the new minion key on the master. Otherwise in the last screen do not start the minion or at the command prompt enter:

C:\sc stop salt-minion

9) After the minion is installed go to the master and accept the new minion key.

root@master:/etc/salt/pki/master# salt-key
Accepted Keys:
Denied Keys:
Unaccepted Keys:
rsg-lt987
Rejected Keys:

root@master:/etc/salt/pki/master# salt-key -a rsg-lt987
The following keys are going to be accepted:
Unaccepted Keys:
rsg-lt987
Proceed? [n/Y] 
Key for minion rsg-lt987 accepted.

10) Change to the directory where the state file is located.

root@master:/etc/salt/pki/master# cd /srv/salt
root@master:/srv/salt#

11) Update package cache on the minion:

root@master:/srv/saltstack/win# salt rsg-lt987 pkg.refresh_db
This should take some time and report back with several hundred successes.

12) Execute the win10-setup-new.sls state.
Note that the "-t600" is a 10 minute wait for the state to finish. If installing many packages increase this time. If time runs out the master will not display the return value of the execution, although the state execution may have successfully completed.

root@master:/srv/salt# salt -t600 state.sls win10-setup-new

If it all passes the machine will reboot to a short OOBE. After answering the OOBE questions it will display the accounts login screen. The accounts created will only require the initial security preferences OOBE page to be configured on the initial login attempt.

Salt Master Status checks

Troubleshoot

The state file execution may fail for any number or reasons:

A package failed to install

Determine if the package is up to date in the /srv/salt/win/repo-ng/salt-winrepo-ng
A package can't be installed, e.g. CUDA won't be installed if there is no GPU

Can't access minion after state execution

The minion is turned off on the target machine. To access it again turn it on in Services on the Windows machine or in a Command Prompt window enter "\sc start salt-minion"

The Batch File

Note: verify the Salt-Minion is update to date and matches the script - see https://docs.saltproject.io/en/latest/topics/installation/windows.html
On the USB flash drive will be two files: WindowsMinionInstall.bat -and- Salt-Minion-3002.6-AMD64-Setup.exe
Note the line - master=192.168.1.56 - is the IP of your salt master. Change this to the actual IP of your master.
Also, use the Salt-Minion-NNNN.N version to match your master version.

WindowsMinionInstall.bat:

@ECHO OFF
title Install Windows Salt Minion
powershell -NoProfile -ExecutionPolicy Bypass -Command "& {powercfg -x -monitor-timeout-ac 0; powercfg -x -disk-timeout-ac 0; powercfg -x -standby-timeout-ac 0;}"
set minion=%1
 Salt-Minion-3002.6-AMD64-Setup.exe /master=192.168.1.56 /minion-name=%minion%

The State File

In this state file the WSL stanzas are commented. Not all Windows 10 builds can run WSL. Check the latest release information https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/wsl/install-win10. At the time of writing this Twiki Windows 10 Version 1903 or higher, with Build 18362 or higher is required for x64 systems.

root@master:/srv/salt# cat win10-setup-new.sls
install_site_key:
  cmd.run:
    - name: powershell "changepk.exe /ProductKey xxxxx-xxxxx-xxxxx-xxxxx-xxxxx"

create_cscf-admin_account:
  user.present:
    - name: cscf-adm
    - groups:
      - Users
      - Administrators
      - Remote Desktop Users
    - home: C:\Users\cscf-adm
    - fullname: cscf-adm
    - password: CsAd2020

create_cscf-op_account:
  user.present:
    - name: cscf-op
    - groups:
      - Users
      - Administrators
      - Remote Desktop Users
    - home: C:\Users\cscf-op
    - fullname: cscf-op
    - password: CsOp2020

# Removes most of the OOBE for user accounts except for the Privacy Settings.
stop_oobe_for_users:
  reg.present:
    - name: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Setup\OOBE
    - vname: UnattendCreatedUser
    - vdata: 1
    - vtype: REG_DWORD

stop_oobe_animation_for_users:
  reg.present:
    - name: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Policies\System
    - vname: EnableFirstLogonAnimation
    - vdata: 0
    - vtype: REG_DWORD

get_o365:
  file.managed:
    - name: C:\Users\Public\Desktop\OfficeSetup.exe
    - source: salt://OfficeSetup.exe

get_vpn:
  file.managed:
    - name: C:\Users\Public\Desktop\anyconnect-win-4.9.04043-core-vpn-webdeploy-k9.exe
    - source: salt://anyconnect-win-4.9.04043-core-vpn-webdeploy-k9.exe

get_cuda:
  file.managed:
    - name: C:\Users\Public\Desktop\cuda_11.1.0_456.43_win10.exe
    - source: salt://cuda_11.1.0_456.43_win10.exe

install_cuda:
  cmd.run:
    - name: powershell "C:\Users\Public\Desktop\cuda_11.1.0_456.43_win10.exe -s"
    - requires:
      - get_cuda
      - turn_off_ps_security

install_pkgs:
  pkg.installed:
    - pkgs:
      - 7zip
      - gimp
#      - jdk8
      - firefox_x64
      - thunderbird
      - nextcloud-client
#      - owncloud
      - smartmontools
      - vlc
      - zoom
      - adobereader-xi
      - git
      - chrome
      - gvim
      - putty
      - teamviewer
      - texworks
      - virtualbox

disable_NLA:
  reg.present:
    - name: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Terminal Server\WinStations\RDP-TCP
    - vname: UserAuthentication
    - vdata: 0
    - vtype: REG_DWORD

allow_rdp:
  module.run:
    - name: rdp.enable

#install_wsl:
#  cmd.run:
#    - name: powershell "dism.exe /online /enable-feature /featurename:Microsoft-Windows-Subsystem-Linux /all /norestart"

#install_wsl2:
#  cmd.run:
#    - name: powershell "dism.exe /online /enable-feature /featurename:VirtualMachinePlatform /all /norestart"

#set_wsl2_default:
#  cmd.run:
#    - name: powershell 'wsl --set-default-version 2'

txfr_set_name.ps1:
  file.managed:
    - name: C:\salt\conf\set_name.ps1
    - source: salt://set_name.ps1

turn_off_ps_security:
  cmd.run:
    - name: Set-ExecutionPolicy Unrestricted
    - shell: powershell

set_machine_name:
  cmd.run:
    - name: C:\salt\conf\set_name.ps1
    - shell: powershell
    - requires:
      - txfr_set_name.ps1
      - turn_off_ps_security

enable_display_sleep:
  cmd.run:
    - name: powershell "powercfg -x -monitor-timeout-ac 5"

enable_system_sleep:
  cmd.run:
    - name: powershell "powercfg -x -standby-timeout-ac 6"

enable_disk_sleep:
  cmd.run:
    - name: powershell "powercfg -x -disk-timeout-ac 10"

disable_minion_on_boot:
  cmd.run:
    - name: 'sc config "salt-minion" start= disabled'

reboot_machine:
  cmd.run:
    - name: Restart-Computer -Force
    - shell: powershell
    - requires:
      - set_machine_name
#      - get_wsl_ubuntu
#      - set_wsl2_default
#      - install_wsl2
#      - install_wsl
      - allow_rdp
      - disable_NLA
      - install_pkgs
      - install_cuda
      - get_vpn
      - get_o365
      - create_cscf-op_account
      - create_cscf-admin_account
      - install_site_key

Supporting Files

OfficeSetup.exe, anyconnect-win-4.9.04043-core-vpn-webdeploy-k9.exe, cuda_11.1.0_456.43_win10.exe

To change the name of the computer to match the minion name required a PowerShell script. This file needs to be in the same directory as the state file.

root@master:/srv/salt# cat set_name.ps1 
$var1=Select-String -Path C:\salt\conf\minion -Pattern 'id:'
$null,$name = $var1 -split 'id: '
Rename-Computer -NewName $name -Force

Other Stanzas and supporting files

To shrink a Windows volume use the command text file diskpart_shrink.txt and the following two stanzas:

get_diskpart:
  file.managed:
    - name: C:\WINDOWS\system32\diskpart_shrink.txt
    - source: salt://diskpart_shrink.txt

shrink_drive:
  cmd.run:
    - name: powershell "diskpart /s C:\WINDOWS\system32\diskpart_shrink.txt"
    - stateful: False
    - requires:
      - get_diskpart

root@master:/srv/salt# cat diskpart_shrink.txt 
list volume
select volume 2
shrink desired=30000
list volume
exit

Using Chocolatey

Chocolatey is a community vetted public repository for Windows applications: https://chocolatey.org/packages
Documentation on Chocolatey installation and use: https://docs.saltstack.com/en/3000/ref/modules/all/salt.modules.chocolatey.html
State modules: https://docs.saltstack.com/en/3000/ref/states/all/salt.states.chocolatey.html

Install Chocolatey on the minion:

root@master:/srv/salt/win# salt -t 300 * pkg.install chocolatey

Check the installation:

root@master:/srv/salt/win# salt -t 100 myMinion chocolatey.bootstrap
myMinion:
    Chocolatey found at C:\ProgramData\Chocolatey\bin\chocolatey.exe

Install a package via Chocolatey:

root@master:/etc/salt# salt -t 100 myMinion chocolatey.install sysinternals

-- Gord Boerke - 2020-11-10

Topic attachments
I Attachment History Action Size Date Who Comment
JPEGjpg Finish.jpg r1 manage 4154.7 K 2020-12-04 - 13:45 GordBoerke  
JPEGjpg Install-vcredist.jpg r1 manage 2524.4 K 2020-12-04 - 13:45 GordBoerke  
JPEGjpg Install.jpg r1 manage 3035.7 K 2020-12-04 - 13:45 GordBoerke  
JPEGjpg RunBatchFile.jpg r1 manage 3092.6 K 2020-12-04 - 11:23 GordBoerke  
JPEGjpg TermsOfAgreement.jpg r1 manage 2638.5 K 2020-12-04 - 13:45 GordBoerke  
JPEGjpg WelcomToSaltStack.jpg r1 manage 2634.7 K 2020-12-04 - 13:22 GordBoerke  
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Topic revision: r22 - 2021-05-28 - LoriPaniak
 
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