Documents on Mexican Politics.

"Human Rights" in the U.S. is used solely to talk about
political rights .  I reproduce below the entire text of the Universal
Declaration of Human Rights. It appears that the U.S. could be held in
violation in practice, of articles 12,18,19,21.2,23.2,25,26.3,27.2,
though all of them may be arguable on the basis of vagueness of


         WHEREAS  recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal  and
inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation  of
freedom, justice and peace in the world,

         WHEREAS  disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted  in
barbarous  acts  which have outraged the conscience of  mankind,   and  the
advent  of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech  and
belief  and freedom from fear and want has been proclaimed as  the  highest
aspiration of the common people,

         WHEREAS  it is essential,  if man is not to be compelled  to  have
recourse,  as a last resort,  to rebellion against tyranny and  oppression,
that human rights should be protected by the rule of law,

         WHEREAS  it  is essential to promote the development  of  friendly
relations between nations,

         WHEREAS  the  peoples of the United Nations have  in  the  Charter
reaffirmed  their  faith in fundamental human rights,  in the  dignity  and
worth of the human person and in the equal rights of men and women and have
determined  to  promote  social progress and better standards  of  life  in
larger freedom,

         WHEREAS  Member States have pledged themselves to achieve,  in co-
operation with the United Nations,  the promotion of universal respect  for
and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms,

         WHEREAS a common understanding of these rights and freedoms is  of
the greatest importance for the full realisation of this pledge,

         Now,   therefore,   THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY proclaims this  Universal
Declaration  of  Human Rights as a common standard of achievement  for  all
peoples and all nations,  to the end that every individual and every  organ
of society,  keeping this Declaration constantly in mind,  shall strive  by
teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and
by progressive  measures,   national and international,   to  secure  their
universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the  peoples
of the Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories  under
their jurisdiction.

         ARTICLE  1.   All human beings are born free and equal in  dignity
and  rights.    They are endowed with reason and conscience and should  act
towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

         ARTICLE  2.   Everyone is entitled to all the rights and  freedoms
set  forth in this Declaration,  without distinction of any kind,  such  as
race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national
or social origin, property, birth or other status.

         Furthermore,   no  distinction shall be made on the basis  of  the
political,   jurisdictional  or  international status  of  the  country  or
territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-
self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty.

         ARTICLE 3.   Everyone has the right to life,  liberty and security
of person.

         ARTICLE 4.  No one shall be held in slavery or servitude;  slavery
and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms.

         ARTICLE  5.   No one shall be subjected to torture  or  to  cruel,
inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

         ARTICLE 6.   Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a
person before the law.

         ARTICLE  7.  All are equal before the law and are entitled without
any  discrimination to equal protection of the law.   All are  entitled  to
equal   protection  against  any  discrimination  in  violation   of   this
Declaration and against any incitement to such discrimination.

         ARTICLE  8.  Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by  the
competent  national  tribunals for acts violating  the  fundamental  rights
granted him by the constitution or by law.

         ARTICLE  9.   No  one  shall be  subjected  to  arbitrary  arrest,
detention or exile.

         ARTICLE  10.   Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and
public   hearing  by  an  independent  and  impartial  tribunal,   in   the
determination  of  his rights and obligations and of  any  criminal  charge
against him.

          ARTICLE  11.  (1)  Everyone charged with a penal offence has  the
right   to   be  presumed  innocent  until  proved  guilty   according   to
law   in  a  public  trial  at  which  he  has  had  all   the   guarantees
necessary for his defence.

         (2) No one shall be held guilty of any penal offence on account of
any  act  or  omission  which did not constitute a  penal  offence,   under
national  or  international law,  at the time when it was committed.    Nor
shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at  the
time the penal offence was committed.

         ARTICLE  12.  No one shall be subjected to arbitrary  interference
with his privacy,  family, home or correspondence, nor to attacks upon  his
honour and reputation.  Everyone has the right to the protection of the law
against such interference or attacks.

         ARTICLE 13.  (1) Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and
residence within the borders of each State.

         (2)   Everyone has the right to leave any country,  including  his
own, and to return to his country.

          ARTICLE  14.  (1)  Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in
other countries asylum from persecution.

         (2)   This  right may not be invoked in the case  of  prosecutions
genuinely  arising form non-political crimes or from acts contrary  to  the
purposes and principles of the United Nations.

         ARTICLE 15. (1) Everyone has the right to a nationality.

         (2)   No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality  nor
denied the right to change his nationality.

         ARTICLE 16. (1) Men and women of full age,  without any limitation
due to race, nationality or religion,  have the right to marry and to found
a family. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, during marriage
and at its dissolution.

         (2)   Marriage shall be entered into only with the free  and  full
consent of the intending spouses.

         (3)   The  family  is the natural and fundamental  group  unit  of
society and is entitled to protection by society and the State.

         ARTICLE  17.  (1)  Everyone has the right to own property alone as
well as in association with others.

         (2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his property.

         ARTICLE  18.    Everyone  has the right  to  freedom  of  thought,
conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion
or belief,  and freedom,  either alone or in community with others  and  in
public  or  private,   to  manifest his religion  or  belief  in  teaching,
practice, worship and observance.

         ARTICLE  19.    Everyone has the right to freedom of  opinion  and
expression;    this  right  includes  freedom  to  hold  opinions   without
interference and to seek,  receive and impart information and ideas through
any media and regardless of frontiers.

         ARTICLE  20.  (1)  Everyone has the right to freedom  of  peaceful
assembly and association.

         (2) No one may be compelled to belong to an association.

         ARTICLE  21.   (1)   Everyone has the right to take  part  in  the
government of his country, directly or through chosen representatives.

         (2)   Everyone has the right of equal access to public service  in
his country.

         (3)  The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of
government;  this will shall be expressed in periodic and genuine elections
which  shall be held by universal and equal suffrage and shall be  held  by
secret vote or by equivalent free voting procedures.

         ARTICLE  22.  Everyone,  as a member of society,  has the right to
social security and is entitled to realisation, through national effort and
international  co-operation  and in accordance with  the  organisation  and
resources  of  each  State,  of the economic,  social and  cultural  rights
indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality.

         ARTICLE 23.  (1) Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of
employment,   to just and favourable conditions of work and  to  protection
against unemployment.

         (2)  Everyone, without any discrimination,  has the right to equal
pay for equal work.

         (3)   Everyone has the right to just and  favourable  remuneration
ensuring  for himself and his family an existence worthy of human  dignity,
and supplemented, if necessary, by other means of social protection.

         (4)    Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions for
the protection of his interests.

         ARTICLE 24.  Everyone has the right to rest and leisure, including
reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay.

         ARTICLE  25.  (1)  Everyone has the right to a standard of  living
adequate for  the  health  and well-being of  himself  and of  his  family,
including  food,  clothing,  housing and medical care and necessary  social
services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness,
disability,    widowhood,   old  age  and  other  lack  of  livelihood   in
circumstances beyond his control.

         (2)   Motherhood  and childhood are entitled to special  care  and
assistance.  All children,  whether born in or out of wedlock,  shall enjoy
the same social protection.

          ARTICLE 26.  (1) Everyone has the right to education.   Education
shall  be  free,   at  least in  the  elementary  and  fundamental  stages.
Elementary  education  shall  be compulsory.   Technical  and  professional
education  shall be made generally available and higher education shall  be
equally accessible to all on the basis of merit.

         (2)   Education shall be directed to the full development  of  the
human  personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and
fundamental  freedoms.    It  shall promote understanding,   tolerance  and
friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and shall further
the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace.

         (3)   Parents  have a prior right to choose the kind of  education
that shall be given their children.

         ARTICLE  27.  (1)  Everyone has the right to freely participate in
the  cultural  life  of the community,  to enjoy the arts and to  share  in
scientific advancement and its benefits.

         (2)   Everyone  has the right to the protection of the  moral  and
material  interests  resulting from any scientific,  literary  or  artistic
production of which he is the author.

         ARTICLE  28.  Everyone is entitled to a social  and  international
order in which the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration can be
fully realised.

         ARTICLE  29.   (1)  Everyone has duties to the community in  which
alone the free and full development of is personality is possible.

         (2) In the exercise of his rights and freedoms,  everyone shall be
subject  only to such limitations as are determined by law solely  for  the
purpose of securing due recognition and respect for the rights and freedoms
of  others and of meeting the just requirements of morality,  public  order
and the general welfare in a democratic society.

         (3) These rights and freedoms may in no case be exercised contrary
to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.

         ARTICLE 30.   Nothing  in  this Declaration may  be interpreted as
implying for any State, group or person any right to engage in any activity
or  to  perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the  rights  and
freedoms set forth herein.

                                                           10 DECEMBER 1948