Documents on Mexican Politics.

  Free-trade and Transfer of wealth:

  Nobody engages in a trade for its own sake. Trade is done
  for acquiring gains, profits and wealth. And for that
  matter, all economic activities are done for some personal
  gains - in the short term or in the long term.

  Trade-based economic model is based on maximization of
  prosperity/profits, division of labor and exploitation of
  nature and fellow-man. Each person, under the system, tries
  to maximize his or her gains at the expense of another
  person in any trade transaction. The system, as a whole,
  tries to maximize the division of labor, division of
  knowledge and division of ownership in order to empower the
  system itself. The system also promotes the maximum inter-
  dependencies among individuals, families, communities and
  eventually among nations for even basic needs so as to make
  them totally dependent on the system itself. The system also
  promote commercialization of nature and its efficient and
  speedy and mass exploitation and depletion.

  Trade based economic model is totally opposite of an
  economic model based on the self-sufficiency, indivisibility
  of labor and milking of nature. I will call this model a
  classical model for the sake of providing contrast to the
  trade-based modern model.

  The prosperity of a collective, division of labor-knowledge-
  ownership and depletion of nature are the pillars on which
  trade-based economic model operates. Notice that all of its
  foundations are expansionist.

  There is no set definition of prosperity. It is elastic and
  insatiable. If the definition of prosperity gets to be
  driven by the expansionist greed and hedonism, there is
  nothing built into the system to check it. Greed for the
  sake of greed, greed for the sake of power, prosperity for
  the sake of prosperity are dehumanizing and enslaving stages
  and they are easily able to piggy back on the trade-based
  model. Thus, prosperity driven model can not put breaks on
  the trade-based model like model based on self-sufficiency
  can. Model based on self-sufficiency is checked from
  unlimited expansion by the limited resources and energies
  that individuals or families can harness on their own. Thus
  greed and hedonism can not ride on such economic model as
  they can on the trade-based model.

  Secondly, trade-based model seeks prosperity of the
  collective. There is not set definition of the collective.
  The model starts out with maximizing the prosperity of  the
  family but it does not stop there. The collective for which
  prosperity is sought progressively enlarge to cover
  community, a province, a region, a nation, a continent, a
  racial group, a culture, a religious or cultural group or
  their alliances, a whole empire, whole globe. Thus both
  pursuit of prosperity and the collective for which wealth
  and prosperity are sought are very elastic and expansionist.
  Therefore, they can not provide any checks to the trade-
  based model as to when to say enough is enough and when to
  contain itself.

  Similarly, principle of division is also expansionist.
  Trade-based model starts out with division of labor, but it
  also progressively carries out  division of knowledge and
  division of ownership/property rights. It creates even finer
  and finer divisions of them and progressively make the
  individual, and than family, and than community, and than
  province, and than nation and than continents totally
  marginal, dependent, interchangeable and inconsequential in
  the trade order presided over and controlled by a handful of
  entities. All decentralized self-sufficiencies in the sphere
  of knowledge, ownership, wealth are lost for ever and they
  are made totally dependant on mercy of the trade order for
  survival. The classical model that stresses self-sufficiency
  and indivisibility of labor, family is made self-sufficient,
  than village, than community and than province and than
  nation and than the continent and than the world. And as
  each level acquire self-sufficiencies, they are freed up to
  pursue non-economic pursuits, acquire independence, freedom
  and autonomy from each other, and allowed to work as
  sovereign and autonomous entities.

  Thirdly, nature is depleted and destroyed under the trade-
  based order. Here again, Trade-based order can not stop with
  just milking the nature, it must eat the whole beef.
  Economic prosperity, employment etc come to depend on
  continuous depletion of nature. If the rate at which nature
  is consumed is greater than the ability of nature to
  replenish itself, nature gets depleted and eventually
  destroyed for good. If something takes 100 years for the
  nature to replenish and if you consume it all in split-
  minute, than it amounts to depletion of nature. If you
  deplete it at such a faster rate that nature gets exhausted
  before nature is in position to replenish it, than you are
  destroying nature. Trade-based economic model brings in such
  stages and consequences upon the earth. However, in the
  interim stages, since nature is vast, its variety is so
  vast, the phenomenal rate of depletion is not all that
  visible in the short-run. So vastness and variety of nature
  provides elasticity to the trade-based order in stead of
  putting any checks on it. Trade-based model constantly seeks
  out greener pastures to tap untapped nature and resources.

  Thus, trade-based economics does not produce prosperity,
  wealth or nature, it merely redistributes and consumes the
  prosperity, wealth and nature. The entire foundation of this
  model is expansionist. Since it is consumption-oriented, it
  constantly has to expand commercialization, add new markets
  and exploit new frontiers even to maintain its current
  prosperity. When trade-order saturate a given  community or
  province, it seeks to engulf the whole nation within its
  order. When a given nation get saturated and provide no more
  expansionist potential, it seeks to engulf neighboring
  nations, hemispheres, continents and ultimately the whole
  globe. Thus, trade-based economic order end in global

  Trade-based model, when confined to a national base of
  operation, creates classes within the nation. When all
  people compete to maximize there gains, there will always be
  some who will succeed more than others and some will get
  exploited more than others. And remember that trade-based
  order do not produce any new wealth, it merely transforms,
  packages the existing wealth and transfers the wealth, from
  one individual to another, one family to another, from
  nature to a factory, from factory to another factory, from
  factory to individuals. Thus wealth is transferred endlessly
  among people and at any moment, some will have more of it
  than others. Thus, such trade-based order create classes,
  haves and have-nots at national level.

  However, if the national economy is able to absorb the
  economies of other nations through trade, than the
  distribution of the classes and have-nots gets spread out
  across the spectrum of the trade-zone which now spans across
  the several nations, and the stronger nation can arrange the
  polity and economic relationships in such a way that the
  have-nots and lower-classes produced by the trade-based
  model are  concentrated only beyond its national borders.
  This is possible because trade acquires  wealth and
  consumerism spends wealth. Whoever conducts the trade and
  provide goods and services acquire wealth and whoever merely
  provides labor and consumption of goods spends and transfers
  the wealth. Nation providing goods and services procure
  wealth from other nations and nation providing merely labor
  and markets merely spend its wealth and transfer to its
  trading partner.

  Thus, global trade order globalizes the classes and have-
  nots. It produces first-world, middle-world and third-world.
  Nations who are politically strong and who have mastered the
  trade-order can export its lower-classes and haves-not
  conditions to the weaker nations while strengthening its
  prosperity by wealth-transfer from all over the world. Free-
  flow of goods and services and money and ownerships
  facilitate flow of wealth to the top and flow of misery to
  the bottom. Trickle-down theory in national level operation
  make rich richer and poor poorer and poor people at the
  mercy of trickle down effect. Globalization of this theory
  is allowed by globalization of trade which makes rich
  nations richer and poor nations poorer. Rich nations entice
  the poor nations with novelty of consumerism and increased
  standard of living to give up their economic sovereignty and
  join the global trade regime but international consumerism
  only deplete even whatever wealth such poor nations have
  managed to have. Consumerism is nothing but expenditure of
  wealth in exchange for life-style. When consumerism is
  confined within a nation, there is wealth transfer among
  people but nations as a whole does not loose wealth. But
  internationalized consumerism transfers wealth from consumer
  to the producer across national borders. Some nations
  acquire wealth and some nations lose it.

  Even the new employment gains by international trade are
  short-lived. These gains are spent right back on giving
  greater boost to consumerism. As long as a nation has the
  wealth to transfer, employments, consumerism and traders
  remain vibrant in the nation. After that, the real
  exploitation, dehumanization, colonialism and enslavement
  begin. So consumerism, imported life-styles and employments
  can not be considered signs of national progress. It is a
  sign of degeneration and eventual fall of nation. This is
  true for all nations that would be at the bottom of the
  global pyramid.

  Trade is such an expansionist thing, that it constantly
  expands its domain. It commercializes every aspect of human
  life, human relationships, human values, human needs. It
  also depletes nature, commercializes nature, privatizes
  nature, destroys nature. Land, water, air and some of the
  natural gifts that man absolutely can not live without
  become commercialized. A free-trade where nothing is free
  and everything has a cost and a price! It establishes
  supremacy of capitalism over humanity, nations, nature and
  even culture. Expansionist commercialism even subjects
  culture to commercial values. Cultural products and
  political ideas become goods and services and they are
  subjected to free-trade. Thus cultural invasion, political
  invasion become inseparable from free-trade. Films, movies,
  TV, magazines, books, newspapers, educational curricula etc
  reflect not only commercial ventures but also they are also
  part and parcel of cultural and political values too. Thus
  economic invasion become inseparable from cultural and
  political invasion. Take over of national economy through
  trade domination become inseparable from cultural and
  political take over of the nation and subjugation of the
  native models. Thus, economic take over expand to become
  take over of cultural and political sovereignties. This is
  true for nations who are at the bottom of the global pyramid
  created by the trade-based model.

  In trade-based model, everything is sough to be globalized
  and their free-flow is sought except people as if people do
  not represent knowledge, skills, labor, resource, services.
  People can not move about freely to maximize their gains.

  Only capital, wealth and goods and services, corporations
  etc allowed the free-flow that transcend national
  boundaries. Even if free-trade regime destroy the nation-
  state and sovereignties of poor nations, it has to be
  imposed on all. But since free-flow of people from poor to
  the rich nations can hamper the nation-state and world-state
  sovereignties of the rich nations, it is ruthlessly objected
  by the free-traders. Instead of people moving to the rich
  nations and disrupting them, free-traders make the reverse
  case of rich nations taking their operations to the poor
  nations to disrupt them. Thus, free-trade is a demonic,
  self-serving and inhumane concept. There is not greater
  organized evil than free-trade.

  In a classical model which is an antithesis of trade-based
  model, emphasis is on giving economic self-sufficiency and
  consequent economic sovereignty to families, communities,
  provinces and nations. Here trade is also used for
  reinforcing and supplementing the economic self-sufficiency.
  But it is used as a peripheral and complimentary measure and
  not as the central part of the economic model. Plus trade
  has to be subjected to checks and balances so that its
  expansionist traits are inhibited and subdued. World knows
  it only too well that most of the dehumanizations and
  slavery of entire class and race of people have come through
  the route of traders. Man is more than economic animal. The
  goal of any economic model has to be to ensure economic
  well-being of the society and make it so effortless that
  people are able to pursue other non-economic and loftier
  pursuits in life. Expansionist economic models entangle
  humanity in never-ending and ever-expanding economic
  pursuits and consume the humanity. People end up spending
  their entire life in preparing for economic life and pursuit
  of economic life and even at the end of such hectic life,
  the sum total of their wealth barely cover their old-age.
  Sum total of their economic activity at the fag end of their
  life turns out to be a big zero and so is the sum total of
  their non-economic pursuits. They have nothing to pass it on
  to the next generation who must start from big zero-line and
  repeat the cycle all over again. This is the complete
  dehumanization and devaluation of life and humanity. Under
  trade-based economic model, nobody is a winner.

  By Manmohan Sinha