(PDF) Abid M. Malik, Michael Chase, Tyrel Russell, and Peter van Beek. An application of constraint programming to superblock instruction scheduling. Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Principles and Practice of Constraint Programming, Sydney, Australia, 97-111, September, 2008.


Modern computer architectures have complex features that can only be fully taken advantage of if the compiler schedules the compiled code. A standard region of code for scheduling in an optimizing compiler is called a superblock. Scheduling superblocks optimally is known to be NP-complete, and production compilers use non-optimal heuristic algorithms. In this paper, we present an application of constraint programming to the superblock instruction scheduling problem. The resulting system is both optimal and fast enough to be incorporated into production compilers, and is the first optimal superblock scheduler for \emph{realistic} architectures. In developing our optimal scheduler, the keys to scaling up to large, real problems were in applying and adapting several techniques from the literature including: implied and dominance constraints, impact-based variable ordering heuristics, singleton bounds consistency, portfolios, and structure-based decomposition techniques. We experimentally evaluated our optimal scheduler on the SPEC 2000 benchmarks, a standard benchmark suite. Depending on the architectural model, between 98.29\% to 99.98\% of all superblocks were solved to optimality. The scheduler was able to routinely solve the largest superblocks, including superblocks with up to 2,600 instructions, and gave noteworthy improvements over previous heuristic approaches.


An implementation of the constraint programming approach to superblock instruction scheduling for realistic multiple-issue processors described in the paper: README, schedule.tar.gz

Data set

Also available are benchmark instances: superblocks.tar.gz.

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