This research is carried out by Berry and his Ph.D. student Erik Kamsties, from Fraunhofer Institute for Experimental Software Engineering, in Kaiserslautern, Germany

Rupp and Goetz observe that some, but not all, requirement specification sentences involving universal quantification, are dangerous because they are usually not true. These universal quantifier indications in natural language include ``never'', ``always'', ``none'', ``each'', and ``all''. Jackson and Zave provide a classification of requirement specification sentences into indicative and optative sentences. It is observed that the dangerous sentences involving universal quantifiers are all indicative.

Berry and Kamsties have written and published a paper on the subject:

Berry, D.M. and Kamsties, E. ``The Dangerous `All' in Specifications,'' Proceedings of the Tenth International Workshop on Software Specification and Design (IWSSD'00), San Diego, CA, 5-7 November 2000, Position Paper PDF   ps.Z

Future directions include

  1. building a simple tool to detect the presence of problematic words and to display the containing sentences, perhaps in their context, and
  2. conducting experiments to determine the effectivness of the dangerous ``all'' identification, with and without the tool, compared with blissful ignorance, in helping to improve requirements specifications.
Perhaps this tool could also highlight words that lead to ambiguities of the kind detailed in the ambiguity work mentioned elsewhere.