A given number is perfect if it is equal to the sum of all its proper divisors. This question was first posed by Euclid in ancient Greece. This question is still open. Euler proved that if N is an odd perfect number, then in the prime power decomposition of N, exactly one exponent is congruent to 1 mod 4 and all the other exponents are even. Furthermore, the prime occurring to an odd power must itself be congruent to 1 mod 4. A sketch of the proof appears in Exercise 87, page 203 of Underwood Dudley's Elementary Number Theory. It has been shown that there are no odd perfect numbers .